# scipy.integrate.RK23#

class scipy.integrate.RK23(fun, t0, y0, t_bound, max_step=inf, rtol=0.001, atol=1e-06, vectorized=False, first_step=None, **extraneous)[source]#

Explicit Runge-Kutta method of order 3(2).

This uses the Bogacki-Shampine pair of formulas . The error is controlled assuming accuracy of the second-order method, but steps are taken using the third-order accurate formula (local extrapolation is done). A cubic Hermite polynomial is used for the dense output.

Can be applied in the complex domain.

Parameters:
funcallable

Right-hand side of the system: the time derivative of the state `y` at time `t`. The calling signature is `fun(t, y)`, where `t` is a scalar and `y` is an ndarray with `len(y) = len(y0)`. `fun` must return an array of the same shape as `y`. See vectorized for more information.

t0float

Initial time.

y0array_like, shape (n,)

Initial state.

t_boundfloat

Boundary time - the integration won’t continue beyond it. It also determines the direction of the integration.

first_stepfloat or None, optional

Initial step size. Default is `None` which means that the algorithm should choose.

max_stepfloat, optional

Maximum allowed step size. Default is np.inf, i.e., the step size is not bounded and determined solely by the solver.

rtol, atolfloat and array_like, optional

Relative and absolute tolerances. The solver keeps the local error estimates less than `atol + rtol * abs(y)`. Here rtol controls a relative accuracy (number of correct digits), while atol controls absolute accuracy (number of correct decimal places). To achieve the desired rtol, set atol to be smaller than the smallest value that can be expected from `rtol * abs(y)` so that rtol dominates the allowable error. If atol is larger than `rtol * abs(y)` the number of correct digits is not guaranteed. Conversely, to achieve the desired atol set rtol such that `rtol * abs(y)` is always smaller than atol. If components of y have different scales, it might be beneficial to set different atol values for different components by passing array_like with shape (n,) for atol. Default values are 1e-3 for rtol and 1e-6 for atol.

vectorizedbool, optional

Whether fun may be called in a vectorized fashion. False (default) is recommended for this solver.

If `vectorized` is False, fun will always be called with `y` of shape `(n,)`, where `n = len(y0)`.

If `vectorized` is True, fun may be called with `y` of shape `(n, k)`, where `k` is an integer. In this case, fun must behave such that `fun(t, y)[:, i] == fun(t, y[:, i])` (i.e. each column of the returned array is the time derivative of the state corresponding with a column of `y`).

Setting `vectorized=True` allows for faster finite difference approximation of the Jacobian by methods ‘Radau’ and ‘BDF’, but will result in slower execution for this solver.

References



P. Bogacki, L.F. Shampine, “A 3(2) Pair of Runge-Kutta Formulas”, Appl. Math. Lett. Vol. 2, No. 4. pp. 321-325, 1989.

Attributes:
nint

Number of equations.

statusstring

Current status of the solver: ‘running’, ‘finished’ or ‘failed’.

t_boundfloat

Boundary time.

directionfloat

Integration direction: +1 or -1.

tfloat

Current time.

yndarray

Current state.

t_oldfloat

Previous time. None if no steps were made yet.

step_sizefloat

Size of the last successful step. None if no steps were made yet.

nfevint

Number evaluations of the system’s right-hand side.

njevint

Number of evaluations of the Jacobian. Is always 0 for this solver as it does not use the Jacobian.

nluint

Number of LU decompositions. Is always 0 for this solver.

Methods

 Compute a local interpolant over the last successful step. Perform one integration step.