Perform a whitening transformation on data.

“Whitening” (“white” as in “white noise”, in which each frequency has equal magnitude) transforms a set of random variables into a new set of random variables with unit-diagonal covariance. When a whitening transform is applied to a sample of points distributed according to a multivariate normal distribution with zero mean, the covariance of the transformed sample is approximately the identity matrix.


An array of points. The last dimension must correspond with the dimensionality of the space, i.e., the number of columns in the covariance matrix.


The transformed array of points.



“Whitening Transformation”. Wikipedia.


Novak, Lukas, and Miroslav Vorechovsky. “Generalization of coloring linear transformation”. Transactions of VSB 18.2 (2018): 31-35. DOI:10.31490/tces-2018-0013


>>> import numpy as np
>>> from scipy import stats
>>> rng = np.random.default_rng()
>>> n = 3
>>> A = rng.random(size=(n, n))
>>> cov_array = A @ A.T  # make matrix symmetric positive definite
>>> precision = np.linalg.inv(cov_array)
>>> cov_object = stats.Covariance.from_precision(precision)
>>> x = rng.multivariate_normal(np.zeros(n), cov_array, size=(10000))
>>> x_ = cov_object.whiten(x)
>>> np.cov(x_, rowvar=False)  # near-identity covariance
array([[0.97862122, 0.00893147, 0.02430451],
       [0.00893147, 0.96719062, 0.02201312],
       [0.02430451, 0.02201312, 0.99206881]])