scipy.optimize.quadratic_assignment(A, B, method='2opt', options={'maximize': False, 'rng': None, 'partial_match': None, 'partial_guess': None})

Solve the quadratic assignment problem (approximately).

This function solves the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) and the Graph Matching Problem (GMP) using the 2-opt algorithm [1].

Quadratic assignment solves problems of the following form:

$\begin{split}\min_P & \ {\ \text{trace}(A^T P B P^T)}\\ \mbox{s.t. } & {P \ \epsilon \ \mathcal{P}}\\\end{split}$

where $$\mathcal{P}$$ is the set of all permutation matrices, and $$A$$ and $$B$$ are square matrices.

Graph matching tries to maximize the same objective function. This algorithm can be thought of as finding the alignment of the nodes of two graphs that minimizes the number of induced edge disagreements, or, in the case of weighted graphs, the sum of squared edge weight differences.

Note that the quadratic assignment problem is NP-hard. The results given here are approximations and are not guaranteed to be optimal.

Parameters
A2-D array, square

The square matrix $$A$$ in the objective function above.

B2-D array, square

The square matrix $$B$$ in the objective function above.

methodstr in {‘faq’, ‘2opt’} (default: ‘faq’)

The algorithm used to solve the problem. This is the method-specific documentation for ‘2opt’. ‘faq’ is also available.

Returns
resOptimizeResult

OptimizeResult containing the following fields.

col_ind1-D array

Column indices corresponding to the best permutation found of the nodes of B.

funfloat

The objective value of the solution.

nitint

The number of iterations performed during optimization.

For documentation for the rest of the parameters, see scipy.optimize.quadratic_assignment

Options
maximizebool (default: False)

Maximizes the objective function if True.

rngint, RandomState, Generator or None, optional (default: None)

Accepts an integer as a seed for the random generator or a RandomState or Generator object. If None (default), uses global numpy.random random state.

partial_match2-D array of integers, optional (default: None)

Fixes part of the matching. Also known as a “seed” [2].

Each row of partial_match specifies a pair of matched nodes: node partial_match[i, 0] of A is matched to node partial_match[i, 1] of B. The array has shape (m, 2), where m is not greater than the number of nodes, $$n$$.

partial_guess2-D array of integers, optional (default: None)

A guess for the matching between the two matrices. Unlike partial_match, partial_guess does not fix the indices; they are still free to be optimized.

Each row of partial_guess specifies a pair of matched nodes: node partial_guess[i, 0] of A is matched to node partial_guess[i, 1] of B. The array has shape (m, 2), where m is not greater than the number of nodes, $$n$$.

Notes

This is a greedy algorithm that works similarly to bubble sort: beginning with an initial permutation, it iteratively swaps pairs of indices to improve the objective function until no such improvements are possible.

References

1

“2-opt,” Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-opt

2

D. Fishkind, S. Adali, H. Patsolic, L. Meng, D. Singh, V. Lyzinski, C. Priebe, “Seeded graph matching”, Pattern Recognit. 87 (2019): 203-215, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2018.09.014