# numpy.log10¶

`numpy.``log10`(x, /, out=None, *, where=True, casting='same_kind', order='K', dtype=None, subok=True[, signature, extobj]) = <ufunc 'log10'>

Return the base 10 logarithm of the input array, element-wise.

Parameters: x : array_like Input values. out : ndarray, None, or tuple of ndarray and None, optional A location into which the result is stored. If provided, it must have a shape that the inputs broadcast to. If not provided or None, a freshly-allocated array is returned. A tuple (possible only as a keyword argument) must have length equal to the number of outputs. where : array_like, optional Values of True indicate to calculate the ufunc at that position, values of False indicate to leave the value in the output alone. **kwargs For other keyword-only arguments, see the ufunc docs. y : ndarray The logarithm to the base 10 of x, element-wise. NaNs are returned where x is negative. This is a scalar if x is a scalar.

`emath.log10`

Notes

Logarithm is a multivalued function: for each x there is an infinite number of z such that 10**z = x. The convention is to return the z whose imaginary part lies in [-pi, pi].

For real-valued input data types, `log10` always returns real output. For each value that cannot be expressed as a real number or infinity, it yields `nan` and sets the invalid floating point error flag.

For complex-valued input, `log10` is a complex analytical function that has a branch cut [-inf, 0] and is continuous from above on it. `log10` handles the floating-point negative zero as an infinitesimal negative number, conforming to the C99 standard.

References

 [1] M. Abramowitz and I.A. Stegun, “Handbook of Mathematical Functions”, 10th printing, 1964, pp. 67. http://www.math.sfu.ca/~cbm/aands/
 [2] Wikipedia, “Logarithm”. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logarithm

Examples

```>>> np.log10([1e-15, -3.])
array([-15.,  NaN])
```

numpy.log

numpy.log2