# scipy.spatial.transform.Rotation.align_vectors¶

- Rotation.align_vectors()¶
Estimate a rotation to optimally align two sets of vectors.

Find a rotation between frames A and B which best aligns a set of vectors

*a*and*b*observed in these frames. The following loss function is minimized to solve for the rotation matrix \(C\):\[L(C) = \frac{1}{2} \sum_{i = 1}^{n} w_i \lVert \mathbf{a}_i - C \mathbf{b}_i \rVert^2 ,\]where \(w_i\)’s are the

*weights*corresponding to each vector.The rotation is estimated with Kabsch algorithm [1].

- Parameters
**a**array_like, shape (N, 3)Vector components observed in initial frame A. Each row of

*a*denotes a vector.**b**array_like, shape (N, 3)Vector components observed in another frame B. Each row of

*b*denotes a vector.**weights**array_like shape (N,), optionalWeights describing the relative importance of the vector observations. If None (default), then all values in

*weights*are assumed to be 1.**return_sensitivity**bool, optionalWhether to return the sensitivity matrix. See Notes for details. Default is False.

- Returns
**estimated_rotation**`Rotation`

instanceBest estimate of the rotation that transforms

*b*to*a*.**rmsd**floatRoot mean square distance (weighted) between the given set of vectors after alignment. It is equal to

`sqrt(2 * minimum_loss)`

, where`minimum_loss`

is the loss function evaluated for the found optimal rotation.**sensitivity_matrix**ndarray, shape (3, 3)Sensitivity matrix of the estimated rotation estimate as explained in Notes. Returned only when

*return_sensitivity*is True.

Notes

This method can also compute the sensitivity of the estimated rotation to small perturbations of the vector measurements. Specifically we consider the rotation estimate error as a small rotation vector of frame A. The sensitivity matrix is proportional to the covariance of this rotation vector assuming that the vectors in

*a*was measured with errors significantly less than their lengths. To get the true covariance matrix, the returned sensitivity matrix must be multiplied by harmonic mean [3] of variance in each observation. Note that*weights*are supposed to be inversely proportional to the observation variances to get consistent results. For example, if all vectors are measured with the same accuracy of 0.01 (*weights*must be all equal), then you should multiple the sensitivity matrix by 0.01**2 to get the covariance.Refer to [2] for more rigorous discussion of the covariance estimation.

References