numpy.log10(x, /, out=None, *, where=True, casting='same_kind', order='K', dtype=None, subok=True[, signature, extobj]) = <ufunc 'log10'>

Return the base 10 logarithm of the input array, element-wise.


x : array_like

Input values.

out : ndarray, None, or tuple of ndarray and None, optional

A location into which the result is stored. If provided, it must have a shape that the inputs broadcast to. If not provided or None, a freshly-allocated array is returned. A tuple (possible only as a keyword argument) must have length equal to the number of outputs.

where : array_like, optional

Values of True indicate to calculate the ufunc at that position, values of False indicate to leave the value in the output alone.


For other keyword-only arguments, see the ufunc docs.


y : ndarray

The logarithm to the base 10 of x, element-wise. NaNs are returned where x is negative.

See also



Logarithm is a multivalued function: for each x there is an infinite number of z such that 10**z = x. The convention is to return the z whose imaginary part lies in [-pi, pi].

For real-valued input data types, log10 always returns real output. For each value that cannot be expressed as a real number or infinity, it yields nan and sets the invalid floating point error flag.

For complex-valued input, log10 is a complex analytical function that has a branch cut [-inf, 0] and is continuous from above on it. log10 handles the floating-point negative zero as an infinitesimal negative number, conforming to the C99 standard.


[R51]M. Abramowitz and I.A. Stegun, “Handbook of Mathematical Functions”, 10th printing, 1964, pp. 67.
[R52]Wikipedia, “Logarithm”.


>>> np.log10([1e-15, -3.])
array([-15.,  NaN])

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