numpy.log(x, /, out=None, *, where=True, casting='same_kind', order='K', dtype=None, subok=True[, signature, extobj]) = <ufunc 'log'>

Natural logarithm, element-wise.

The natural logarithm log is the inverse of the exponential function, so that log(exp(x)) = x. The natural logarithm is logarithm in base e.


x : array_like

Input value.

out : ndarray, None, or tuple of ndarray and None, optional

A location into which the result is stored. If provided, it must have a shape that the inputs broadcast to. If not provided or None, a freshly-allocated array is returned. A tuple (possible only as a keyword argument) must have length equal to the number of outputs.

where : array_like, optional

Values of True indicate to calculate the ufunc at that position, values of False indicate to leave the value in the output alone.


For other keyword-only arguments, see the ufunc docs.


y : ndarray

The natural logarithm of x, element-wise.

See also

log10, log2, log1p, emath.log


Logarithm is a multivalued function: for each x there is an infinite number of z such that exp(z) = x. The convention is to return the z whose imaginary part lies in [-pi, pi].

For real-valued input data types, log always returns real output. For each value that cannot be expressed as a real number or infinity, it yields nan and sets the invalid floating point error flag.

For complex-valued input, log is a complex analytical function that has a branch cut [-inf, 0] and is continuous from above on it. log handles the floating-point negative zero as an infinitesimal negative number, conforming to the C99 standard.


[R49]M. Abramowitz and I.A. Stegun, “Handbook of Mathematical Functions”, 10th printing, 1964, pp. 67.
[R50]Wikipedia, “Logarithm”.


>>> np.log([1, np.e, np.e**2, 0])
array([  0.,   1.,   2., -Inf])

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