# numpy.log¶

`numpy.``log`(x, /, out=None, *, where=True, casting='same_kind', order='K', dtype=None, subok=True[, signature, extobj]) = <ufunc 'log'>

Natural logarithm, element-wise.

The natural logarithm `log` is the inverse of the exponential function, so that log(exp(x)) = x. The natural logarithm is logarithm in base `e`.

Parameters: x : array_like Input value. out : ndarray, None, or tuple of ndarray and None, optional A location into which the result is stored. If provided, it must have a shape that the inputs broadcast to. If not provided or None, a freshly-allocated array is returned. A tuple (possible only as a keyword argument) must have length equal to the number of outputs. where : array_like, optional Values of True indicate to calculate the ufunc at that position, values of False indicate to leave the value in the output alone. **kwargs For other keyword-only arguments, see the ufunc docs. y : ndarray The natural logarithm of x, element-wise.

`log10`, `log2`, `log1p`, `emath.log`

Notes

Logarithm is a multivalued function: for each x there is an infinite number of z such that exp(z) = x. The convention is to return the z whose imaginary part lies in [-pi, pi].

For real-valued input data types, `log` always returns real output. For each value that cannot be expressed as a real number or infinity, it yields `nan` and sets the invalid floating point error flag.

For complex-valued input, `log` is a complex analytical function that has a branch cut [-inf, 0] and is continuous from above on it. `log` handles the floating-point negative zero as an infinitesimal negative number, conforming to the C99 standard.

References

 [R49] M. Abramowitz and I.A. Stegun, “Handbook of Mathematical Functions”, 10th printing, 1964, pp. 67. http://www.math.sfu.ca/~cbm/aands/
 [R50] Wikipedia, “Logarithm”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logarithm

Examples

```>>> np.log([1, np.e, np.e**2, 0])
array([  0.,   1.,   2., -Inf])
```

numpy.exp2

numpy.log10