# scipy.integrate.romberg¶

scipy.integrate.romberg(function, a, b, args=(), tol=1.48e-08, rtol=1.48e-08, show=False, divmax=10, vec_func=False)[source]

Romberg integration of a callable function or method.

Returns the integral of function (a function of one variable) over the interval (a, b).

If show is 1, the triangular array of the intermediate results will be printed. If vec_func is True (default is False), then function is assumed to support vector arguments.

Parameters
functioncallable

Function to be integrated.

afloat

Lower limit of integration.

bfloat

Upper limit of integration.

Returns
resultsfloat

Result of the integration.

Other Parameters
argstuple, optional

Extra arguments to pass to function. Each element of args will be passed as a single argument to func. Default is to pass no extra arguments.

tol, rtolfloat, optional

The desired absolute and relative tolerances. Defaults are 1.48e-8.

showbool, optional

Whether to print the results. Default is False.

divmaxint, optional

Maximum order of extrapolation. Default is 10.

vec_funcbool, optional

Whether func handles arrays as arguments (i.e., whether it is a “vector” function). Default is False.

fixed_quad

quad

dblquad

Double integrals.

tplquad

Triple integrals.

romb

Integrators for sampled data.

simps

Integrators for sampled data.

cumtrapz

Cumulative integration for sampled data.

ode

ODE integrator.

odeint

ODE integrator.

References

1

‘Romberg’s method’ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romberg%27s_method

Examples

Integrate a gaussian from 0 to 1 and compare to the error function.

>>> from scipy import integrate
>>> from scipy.special import erf
>>> gaussian = lambda x: 1/np.sqrt(np.pi) * np.exp(-x**2)
>>> result = integrate.romberg(gaussian, 0, 1, show=True)
Romberg integration of <function vfunc at ...> from [0, 1]

Steps  StepSize  Results
1  1.000000  0.385872
2  0.500000  0.412631  0.421551
4  0.250000  0.419184  0.421368  0.421356
8  0.125000  0.420810  0.421352  0.421350  0.421350
16  0.062500  0.421215  0.421350  0.421350  0.421350  0.421350
32  0.031250  0.421317  0.421350  0.421350  0.421350  0.421350  0.421350


The final result is 0.421350396475 after 33 function evaluations.

>>> print("%g %g" % (2*result, erf(1)))
0.842701 0.842701