# scipy.signal.unique_roots¶

scipy.signal.unique_roots(p, tol=0.001, rtype='min')

Determine unique roots and their multiplicities from a list of roots.

Parameters : p : array_like The list of roots. tol : float, optional The tolerance for two roots to be considered equal. Default is 1e-3. rtype : {‘max’, ‘min, ‘avg’}, optional How to determine the returned root if multiple roots are within tol of each other. ‘max’: pick the maximum of those roots. ‘min’: pick the minimum of those roots. ‘avg’: take the average of those roots. pout : ndarray The list of unique roots, sorted from low to high. mult : ndarray The multiplicity of each root.

Notes

This utility function is not specific to roots but can be used for any sequence of values for which uniqueness and multiplicity has to be determined. For a more general routine, see numpy.unique.

Examples

```>>> vals = [0, 1.3, 1.31, 2.8, 1.25, 2.2, 10.3]
>>> uniq, mult = sp.signal.unique_roots(vals, tol=2e-2, rtype='avg')
```

Check which roots have multiplicity larger than 1:

```>>> uniq[mult > 1]
array([ 1.305])
```

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