ARPACK is a Fortran package which provides routines for quickly finding a few
eigenvalues/eigenvectors of large sparse matrices. In order to find these
solutions, it requires only left-multiplication by the matrix in question.
This operation is performed through a *reverse-communication* interface. The
result of this structure is that ARPACK is able to find eigenvalues and
eigenvectors of any linear function mapping a vector to a vector.

All of the functionality provided in ARPACK is contained within the two
high-level interfaces `scipy.sparse.linalg.eigs` and
`scipy.sparse.linalg.eigsh`. `eigs`
provides interfaces to find the
eigenvalues/vectors of real or complex nonsymmetric square matrices, while
`eigsh` provides interfaces for real-symmetric or complex-hermitian
matrices.

ARPACK can solve either standard eigenvalue problems of the form

or general eigenvalue problems of the form

The power of ARPACK is that it can compute only a specified subset of
eigenvalue/eigenvector pairs. This is accomplished through the keyword
`which`. The following values of `which` are available:

`which = 'LM'`: Eigenvectors with largest magnitude (`eigs`,`eigsh`)`which = 'SM'`: Eigenvectors with smallest magnitude (`eigs`,`eigsh`)`which = 'LR'`: Eigenvectors with largest real part (`eigs`)`which = 'SR'`: Eigenvectors with smallest real part (`eigs`)`which = 'LI'`: Eigenvectors with largest imaginary part (`eigs`)`which = 'SI'`: Eigenvectors with smallest imaginary part (`eigs`)`which = 'LA'`: Eigenvectors with largest amplitude (`eigsh`)`which = 'SA'`: Eigenvectors with smallest amplitude (`eigsh`)`which = 'BE'`: Eigenvectors from both ends of the spectrum (`eigsh`)

Note that ARPACK is generally better at finding extremal eigenvalues: that
is, eigenvalues with large magnitudes. In particular, using `which = 'SM'`
may lead to slow execution time and/or anomalous results. A better approach
is to use *shift-invert mode*.

Shift invert mode relies on the following observation. For the generalized eigenvalue problem

it can be shown that

where

Imagine you’d like to find the smallest and largest eigenvalues and the
corresponding eigenvectors for a large matrix. ARPACK can handle many
forms of input: dense matrices such as `numpy.ndarray` instances, sparse
matrices such as `scipy.sparse.csr_matrix`, or a general linear operator
derived from `scipy.sparse.linalg.LinearOperator`. For this example, for
simplicity, we’ll construct a symmetric, positive-definite matrix.

```
>>> import numpy as np
>>> from scipy.linalg import eigh
>>> from scipy.sparse.linalg import eigsh
>>> np.set_printoptions(suppress=True)
>>>
>>> np.random.seed(0)
>>> X = np.random.random((100,100)) - 0.5
>>> X = np.dot(X, X.T) #create a symmetric matrix
```

We now have a symmetric matrix `X` with which to test the routines. First
compute a standard eigenvalue decomposition using `eigh`:

```
>>> evals_all, evecs_all = eigh(X)
```

As the dimension of `X` grows, this routine becomes very slow. Especially
if only a few eigenvectors and eigenvalues are needed, `ARPACK` can be a
better option. First let’s compute the largest eigenvalues (`which = 'LM'`)
of `X` and compare them to the known results:

```
>>> evals_large, evecs_large = eigsh(X, 3, which='LM')
>>> print evals_all[-3:]
[ 29.1446102 30.05821805 31.19467646]
>>> print evals_large
[ 29.1446102 30.05821805 31.19467646]
>>> print np.dot(evecs_large.T, evecs_all[:,-3:])
[[-1. 0. 0.]
[ 0. 1. 0.]
[-0. 0. -1.]]
```

The results are as expected. ARPACK recovers the desired eigenvalues, and they match the previously known results. Furthermore, the eigenvectors are orthogonal, as we’d expect. Now let’s attempt to solve for the eigenvalues with smallest magnitude:

```
>>> evals_small, evecs_small = eigsh(X, 3, which='SM')
scipy.sparse.linalg.eigen.arpack.arpack.ArpackNoConvergence:
ARPACK error -1: No convergence (1001 iterations, 0/3 eigenvectors converged)
```

Oops. We see that as mentioned above, `ARPACK` is not quite as adept at
finding small eigenvalues. There are a few ways this problem can be
addressed. We could increase the tolerance (`tol`) to lead to faster
convergence:

```
>>> evals_small, evecs_small = eigsh(X, 3, which='SM', tol=1E-2)
>>> print evals_all[:3]
[ 0.0003783 0.00122714 0.00715878]
>>> print evals_small
[ 0.00037831 0.00122714 0.00715881]
>>> print np.dot(evecs_small.T, evecs_all[:,:3])
[[ 0.99999999 0.00000024 -0.00000049]
[-0.00000023 0.99999999 0.00000056]
[ 0.00000031 -0.00000037 0.99999852]]
```

This works, but we lose the precision in the results. Another option is
to increase the maximum number of iterations (`maxiter`) from 1000 to 5000:

```
>>> evals_small, evecs_small = eigsh(X, 3, which='SM', maxiter=5000)
>>> print evals_all[:3]
[ 0.0003783 0.00122714 0.00715878]
>>> print evals_small
[ 0.0003783 0.00122714 0.00715878]
>>> print np.dot(evecs_small.T, evecs_all[:,:3])
[[ 1. 0. 0.]
[-0. 1. 0.]
[ 0. 0. -1.]]
```

We get the results we’d hoped for, but the computation time is much longer.
Fortunately, `ARPACK` contains a mode that allows quick determination of
non-external eigenvalues: *shift-invert mode*. As mentioned above, this
mode involves transforming the eigenvalue problem to an equivalent problem
with different eigenvalues. In this case, we hope to find eigenvalues near
zero, so we’ll choose `sigma = 0`. The transformed eigenvalues will
then satisfy , so our
small eigenvalues become large eigenvalues .

```
>>> evals_small, evecs_small = eigsh(X, 3, sigma=0, which='LM')
>>> print evals_all[:3]
[ 0.0003783 0.00122714 0.00715878]
>>> print evals_small
[ 0.0003783 0.00122714 0.00715878]
>>> print np.dot(evecs_small.T, evecs_all[:,:3])
[[ 1. 0. 0.]
[ 0. -1. -0.]
[-0. -0. 1.]]
```

We get the results we were hoping for, with much less computational time. Note that the transformation from takes place entirely in the background. The user need not worry about the details.

The shift-invert mode provides more than just a fast way to obtain a few
small eigenvalues. Say you
desire to find internal eigenvalues and eigenvectors, e.g. those nearest to
. Simply set `sigma = 1` and ARPACK takes care of
the rest:

```
>>> evals_mid, evecs_mid = eigsh(X, 3, sigma=1, which='LM')
>>> i_sort = np.argsort(abs(1. / (1 - evals_all)))[-3:]
>>> print evals_all[i_sort]
[ 1.16577199 0.85081388 1.06642272]
>>> print evals_mid
[ 0.85081388 1.06642272 1.16577199]
>>> print np.dot(evecs_mid.T, evecs_all[:,i_sort])
[[-0. 1. 0.]
[-0. -0. 1.]
[ 1. 0. 0.]]
```

The eigenvalues come out in a different order, but they’re all there.
Note that the shift-invert mode requires the internal solution of a matrix
inverse. This is taken care of automatically by `eigsh` and `eigs`,
but the operation can also be specified by the user. See the docstring of
`scipy.sparse.linalg.eigsh` and
`scipy.sparse.linalg.eigs` for details.

[1] | http://www.caam.rice.edu/software/ARPACK/ |