numpy.apply_over_axes(func, a, axes)[source]

Apply a function repeatedly over multiple axes.

func is called as res = func(a, axis), where axis is the first element of axes. The result res of the function call must have either the same dimensions as a or one less dimension. If res has one less dimension than a, a dimension is inserted before axis. The call to func is then repeated for each axis in axes, with res as the first argument.


func : function

This function must take two arguments, func(a, axis).

a : array_like

Input array.

axes : array_like

Axes over which func is applied; the elements must be integers.


apply_over_axis : ndarray

The output array. The number of dimensions is the same as a, but the shape can be different. This depends on whether func changes the shape of its output with respect to its input.

See also

Apply a function to 1-D slices of an array along the given axis.


This function is equivalent to tuple axis arguments to reorderable ufuncs with keepdims=True. Tuple axis arguments to ufuncs have been available since version 1.7.0.


>>> a = np.arange(24).reshape(2,3,4)
>>> a
array([[[ 0,  1,  2,  3],
        [ 4,  5,  6,  7],
        [ 8,  9, 10, 11]],
       [[12, 13, 14, 15],
        [16, 17, 18, 19],
        [20, 21, 22, 23]]])

Sum over axes 0 and 2. The result has same number of dimensions as the original array:

>>> np.apply_over_axes(np.sum, a, [0,2])
array([[[ 60],
        [ 92],

Tuple axis arguments to ufuncs are equivalent:

>>> np.sum(a, axis=(0,2), keepdims=True)
array([[[ 60],
        [ 92],

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