# Extending¶

The BitGenerators have been designed to be extendable using standard tools for
high-performance Python – numba and Cython. The `Generator`

object can also
be used with user-provided BitGenerators as long as these export a small set of
required functions.

## Numba¶

Numba can be used with either CTypes or CFFI. The current iteration of the BitGenerators all export a small set of functions through both interfaces.

This example shows how numba can be used to produce Box-Muller normals using
a pure Python implementation which is then compiled. The random numbers are
provided by `ctypes.next_double`

.

```
from numpy.random import PCG64
import numpy as np
import numba as nb
x = PCG64()
f = x.ctypes.next_double
s = x.ctypes.state
state_addr = x.ctypes.state_address
def normals(n, state):
out = np.empty(n)
for i in range((n+1)//2):
x1 = 2.0*f(state) - 1.0
x2 = 2.0*f(state) - 1.0
r2 = x1*x1 + x2*x2
while r2 >= 1.0 or r2 == 0.0:
x1 = 2.0*f(state) - 1.0
x2 = 2.0*f(state) - 1.0
r2 = x1*x1 + x2*x2
g = np.sqrt(-2.0*np.log(r2)/r2)
out[2*i] = g*x1
if 2*i+1 < n:
out[2*i+1] = g*x2
return out
# Compile using Numba
print(normals(10, s).var())
# Warm up
normalsj = nb.jit(normals, nopython=True)
# Must use state address not state with numba
normalsj(1, state_addr)
%timeit normalsj(1000000, state_addr)
print('1,000,000 Box-Muller (numba/PCG64) randoms')
%timeit np.random.standard_normal(1000000)
print('1,000,000 Box-Muller (NumPy) randoms')
```

Both CTypes and CFFI allow the more complicated distributions to be used directly in Numba after compiling the file distributions.c into a DLL or so. An example showing the use of a more complicated distribution is in the examples folder.

## Cython¶

Cython can be used to unpack the `PyCapsule`

provided by a BitGenerator.
This example uses `PCG64`

and
`random_gauss_zig`

, the Ziggurat-based generator for normals, to fill an
array. The usual caveats for writing high-performance code using Cython –
removing bounds checks and wrap around, providing array alignment information
– still apply.

```
import numpy as np
cimport numpy as np
cimport cython
from cpython.pycapsule cimport PyCapsule_IsValid, PyCapsule_GetPointer
from numpy.random.common cimport *
from numpy.random.distributions cimport random_gauss_zig
from numpy.random import PCG64
@cython.boundscheck(False)
@cython.wraparound(False)
def normals_zig(Py_ssize_t n):
cdef Py_ssize_t i
cdef bitgen_t *rng
cdef const char *capsule_name = "BitGenerator"
cdef double[::1] random_values
x = PCG64()
capsule = x.capsule
if not PyCapsule_IsValid(capsule, capsule_name):
raise ValueError("Invalid pointer to anon_func_state")
rng = <bitgen_t *> PyCapsule_GetPointer(capsule, capsule_name)
random_values = np.empty(n)
# Best practice is to release GIL and acquire the lock
with x.lock, nogil:
for i in range(n):
random_values[i] = random_gauss_zig(rng)
randoms = np.asarray(random_values)
return randoms
```

The BitGenerator can also be directly accessed using the members of the basic RNG structure.

```
@cython.boundscheck(False)
@cython.wraparound(False)
def uniforms(Py_ssize_t n):
cdef Py_ssize_t i
cdef bitgen_t *rng
cdef const char *capsule_name = "BitGenerator"
cdef double[::1] random_values
x = PCG64()
capsule = x.capsule
# Optional check that the capsule if from a BitGenerator
if not PyCapsule_IsValid(capsule, capsule_name):
raise ValueError("Invalid pointer to anon_func_state")
# Cast the pointer
rng = <bitgen_t *> PyCapsule_GetPointer(capsule, capsule_name)
random_values = np.empty(n)
with x.lock, nogil:
for i in range(n):
# Call the function
random_values[i] = rng.next_double(rng.state)
randoms = np.asarray(random_values)
return randoms
```

These functions along with a minimal setup file are included in the examples folder.

## New Basic RNGs¶

`Generator`

can be used with other user-provided BitGenerators. The simplest
way to write a new BitGenerator is to examine the pyx file of one of the
existing BitGenerators. The key structure that must be provided is the
`capsule`

which contains a `PyCapsule`

to a struct pointer of type
`bitgen_t`

,

```
typedef struct bitgen {
void *state;
uint64_t (*next_uint64)(void *st);
uint32_t (*next_uint32)(void *st);
double (*next_double)(void *st);
uint64_t (*next_raw)(void *st);
} bitgen_t;
```

which provides 5 pointers. The first is an opaque pointer to the data structure
used by the BitGenerators. The next three are function pointers which return
the next 64- and 32-bit unsigned integers, the next random double and the next
raw value. This final function is used for testing and so can be set to
the next 64-bit unsigned integer function if not needed. Functions inside
`Generator`

use this structure as in

```
bitgen_state->next_uint64(bitgen_state->state)
```