numpy.invert(x, /, out=None, *, where=True, casting='same_kind', order='K', dtype=None, subok=True[, signature, extobj]) = <ufunc 'invert'>

Compute bit-wise inversion, or bit-wise NOT, element-wise.

Computes the bit-wise NOT of the underlying binary representation of the integers in the input arrays. This ufunc implements the C/Python operator ~.

For signed integer inputs, the two’s complement is returned. In a two’s-complement system negative numbers are represented by the two’s complement of the absolute value. This is the most common method of representing signed integers on computers [R64]. A N-bit two’s-complement system can represent every integer in the range -2^{N-1} to +2^{N-1}-1.


x : array_like

Only integer and boolean types are handled.

out : ndarray, None, or tuple of ndarray and None, optional

A location into which the result is stored. If provided, it must have a shape that the inputs broadcast to. If not provided or None, a freshly-allocated array is returned. A tuple (possible only as a keyword argument) must have length equal to the number of outputs.

where : array_like, optional

Values of True indicate to calculate the ufunc at that position, values of False indicate to leave the value in the output alone.


For other keyword-only arguments, see the ufunc docs.


out : array_like


See also

bitwise_and, bitwise_or, bitwise_xor, logical_not

Return the binary representation of the input number as a string.


bitwise_not is an alias for invert:

>>> np.bitwise_not is np.invert


[R64](1, 2) Wikipedia, “Two’s complement”,’s_complement


We’ve seen that 13 is represented by 00001101. The invert or bit-wise NOT of 13 is then:

>>> np.invert(np.array([13], dtype=uint8))
array([242], dtype=uint8)
>>> np.binary_repr(x, width=8)
>>> np.binary_repr(242, width=8)

The result depends on the bit-width:

>>> np.invert(np.array([13], dtype=uint16))
array([65522], dtype=uint16)
>>> np.binary_repr(x, width=16)
>>> np.binary_repr(65522, width=16)

When using signed integer types the result is the two’s complement of the result for the unsigned type:

>>> np.invert(np.array([13], dtype=int8))
array([-14], dtype=int8)
>>> np.binary_repr(-14, width=8)

Booleans are accepted as well:

>>> np.invert(array([True, False]))
array([False,  True])

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