# numpy.apply_along_axis¶

`numpy.``apply_along_axis`(func1d, axis, arr, *args, **kwargs)[source]

Apply a function to 1-D slices along the given axis.

Execute func1d(a, *args) where func1d operates on 1-D arrays and a is a 1-D slice of arr along axis.

Parameters: func1d : function This function should accept 1-D arrays. It is applied to 1-D slices of arr along the specified axis. axis : integer Axis along which arr is sliced. arr : ndarray Input array. args : any Additional arguments to func1d. kwargs : any Additional named arguments to func1d. New in version 1.9.0. apply_along_axis : ndarray The output array. The shape of outarr is identical to the shape of arr, except along the axis dimension. This axis is removed, and replaced with new dimensions equal to the shape of the return value of func1d. So if func1d returns a scalar outarr will have one fewer dimensions than arr.

`apply_over_axes`
Apply a function repeatedly over multiple axes.

Examples

```>>> def my_func(a):
...     """Average first and last element of a 1-D array"""
...     return (a + a[-1]) * 0.5
>>> b = np.array([[1,2,3], [4,5,6], [7,8,9]])
>>> np.apply_along_axis(my_func, 0, b)
array([ 4.,  5.,  6.])
>>> np.apply_along_axis(my_func, 1, b)
array([ 2.,  5.,  8.])
```

For a function that returns a 1D array, the number of dimensions in outarr is the same as arr.

```>>> b = np.array([[8,1,7], [4,3,9], [5,2,6]])
>>> np.apply_along_axis(sorted, 1, b)
array([[1, 7, 8],
[3, 4, 9],
[2, 5, 6]])
```

For a function that returns a higher dimensional array, those dimensions are inserted in place of the axis dimension.

```>>> b = np.array([[1,2,3], [4,5,6], [7,8,9]])
>>> np.apply_along_axis(np.diag, -1, b)
array([[[1, 0, 0],
[0, 2, 0],
[0, 0, 3]],
```
[[4, 0, 0],
[0, 5, 0], [0, 0, 6]],
[[7, 0, 0],
[0, 8, 0], [0, 0, 9]]])

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