SciPy

scipy.ndimage.morphology.binary_closing

scipy.ndimage.morphology.binary_closing(input, structure=None, iterations=1, output=None, origin=0)[source]

Multi-dimensional binary closing with the given structuring element.

The closing of an input image by a structuring element is the erosion of the dilation of the image by the structuring element.

Parameters :

input : array_like

Binary array_like to be closed. Non-zero (True) elements form the subset to be closed.

structure : array_like, optional

Structuring element used for the closing. Non-zero elements are considered True. If no structuring element is provided an element is generated with a square connectivity equal to one (i.e., only nearest neighbors are connected to the center, diagonally-connected elements are not considered neighbors).

iterations : {int, float}, optional

The dilation step of the closing, then the erosion step are each repeated iterations times (one, by default). If iterations is less than 1, each operations is repeated until the result does not change anymore.

output : ndarray, optional

Array of the same shape as input, into which the output is placed. By default, a new array is created.

origin : int or tuple of ints, optional

Placement of the filter, by default 0.

Returns :

binary_closing : ndarray of bools

Closing of the input by the structuring element.

Notes

Closing [R75] is a mathematical morphology operation [R76] that consists in the succession of a dilation and an erosion of the input with the same structuring element. Closing therefore fills holes smaller than the structuring element.

Together with opening (binary_opening), closing can be used for noise removal.

References

[R75](1, 2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closing_%28morphology%29
[R76](1, 2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematical_morphology

Examples

>>> a = np.zeros((5,5), dtype=np.int)
>>> a[1:-1, 1:-1] = 1; a[2,2] = 0
>>> a
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
       [0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
       [0, 1, 0, 1, 0],
       [0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
       [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])
>>> # Closing removes small holes
>>> ndimage.binary_closing(a).astype(np.int)
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
       [0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
       [0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
       [0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
       [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])
>>> # Closing is the erosion of the dilation of the input
>>> ndimage.binary_dilation(a).astype(np.int)
array([[0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
       [1, 1, 1, 1, 1],
       [1, 1, 1, 1, 1],
       [1, 1, 1, 1, 1],
       [0, 1, 1, 1, 0]])
>>> ndimage.binary_erosion(ndimage.binary_dilation(a)).astype(np.int)
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
       [0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
       [0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
       [0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
       [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])
>>> a = np.zeros((7,7), dtype=np.int)
>>> a[1:6, 2:5] = 1; a[1:3,3] = 0
>>> a
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])
>>> # In addition to removing holes, closing can also
>>> # coarsen boundaries with fine hollows.
>>> ndimage.binary_closing(a).astype(np.int)
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])
>>> ndimage.binary_closing(a, structure=np.ones((2,2))).astype(np.int)
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0],
       [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])